The LSE Editorial Board is featuring articles published in LSE that have been annotated to represent various aspects of design, conduct, interpretation, and presentation. This feature aims to help biologists and other scholars who are interested in education research but are unfamiliar with some of the field’s approaches and methods. The articles have been annotated by Board members and vetted by the original authors to ensure that the annotations are technically accurate.

Our annotations comment on background information, provide definitions, emphasize applications for instruction, explicate research design, and notes key elements of writing. In the annotations about background, we provide a historical perspective  that situates an article into its larger context within the field, so readers better understand the justification and rationale for a particular study. The definitions lens offers succinct definitions of sometimes complex and debated concepts. These annotations also include links to open-source citations where readers can learn more about the terms. Some of the papers include discussion about how the research could impact instruction, and we highlight these when possible. Readers will notice that they can infer instructional uses even when the impact of teaching method is not the specific focus of the research being presented. Many of the annotations emphasize research design, because the way biology education research draws on methods from both natural and social sciences is complex, and can be challenging for people new to the field. A number of the articles we have annotated emphasize qualitative research methods, because these are often unfamiliar to  many biologists. Lastly, we offer writing tips for people who seek advice about how to prepare manuscripts about their biology education research.

View our annotated articles here:

Chen C et al. 2020. The Impact of High School Life Science Teachers’ Subject Matter Knowledge and Knowledge of Student Misconceptions on Students’ Learning

Couch BA et al 2017. Scientific Teaching: Defining a Taxonomy of Observable Practices

Coffman et al. Teaching Scientifically

Estrada M et al. 2019. The Influence of Social Supports on Graduate Student Persistence in Biomedical Fields

Ferrare JJ 2019. A Multi-Institutional Analysis of Instructional Beliefs and Practices in Gateway Courses to the Sciences

Gin LE et al. 2021 COVID-19 and Undergraduates with Disabilities: Challenges Resulting from the Rapid Transition to Online Course Delivery for Students with Disabilities in Undergraduate STEM at Large-Enrollment Institutions

Hanauer DI et al 2017. The Project Ownership Survey: Measuring Differences in Scientific Inquiry Experiences

Sana F et al. 2020. Optimizing the Efficacy of Learning Objectives through Pretests

Schinske JN et al. 2017. Scientist Spotlight Homework Assignments Shift Students’ Stereotypes of Scientists and Enhance Science Identity in a Diverse Introductory Science Class

Coffman et al. Spotlighting Diversity

Stanton JD et al. Drawing on Internal Strengths and Creating Spaces for Growth: How Black Science Majors Navigate the Racial Climate at a Predominantly White Institution to Succeed

Thompson JJ et al. 2018. Becoming a “Science Person”: Faculty Recognition and the Development of Cultural Capital in the Context of Undergraduate Biology Research

Zagallo P et al. 2019. Through the Eyes of Faculty: Using Personas as a Tool for Learner-Centered Professional Development

Feedback about this feature and specific annotations is welcome.

Annotated primary literature using a Learning Lens was pioneered by AAAS Science in the Classroom (, a collection of freely available annotated STEM research papers and accompanying teaching materials. We encourage you to pay them a visit, and consider using their papers in your classroom.