E-cigarettes have put nicotine back in the news and into the hands of a growing number of American smokers who now "vape," that is, inhale a steam of nicotine, polyethylene glucose (PEG), and flavoring generated by cigarette-shaped, battery-powered vaporizers.
Cell division is the great domestic drama of a cell's life. In sickness and in health, cell division by mitosis is the complicated yet critical process by which a mother cell divides into two daughter cells. But first the mother cell has to pack up her cellular household contents, disassembling and dividing up everything for her soon-to-be-formed daughters. How cells manage division has been exhaustively studied for well over a century and yet basic mysteries remain.
Dramatic stories in cell biology often have sequels—"Duel of the Alzheimer's Proteins, Part XV"—and indeed this work is a nail-biting sequel to George Bloom's hypothesis that interaction between amyloid-beta peptides and the protein tau drives adult neurons into the forbidden pathway of "cell cycle re-entry" (CCR). The long-term result is Alzheimer's disease (AD). Bloom and colleagues at the University of Virginia (UVA) now say that they have found the critical balance point between tau and a master cellular regulator that amyloid-beta oligomers disrupt.
Fever, ache, and the other miseries of influenza viral infection afflict 5−20 percent of the U.S. population each year. The "flu" is usually not life-threatening to the majority of its victims, but as the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918 showed, flu viruses can evolve into lethal agents and spread worldwide. The ability of flu viruses to change continually through mutation and genetic swaps is the reason that the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reformulates the flu vaccine each year, hoping to block the types and subtypes of influenza viruses that they believe are most likely to be in circulation.